Some words about groomer's certification

First you should check with your state government for any current requirements of which we may not be aware. Remember, laws change frequently between states, and the local and county governments of those states. Wherever your business will reside, is your concern at a local, state and federal level. Further, while you as a pet groomer may not be required to be formally licensed, there is a likelihood that a business license(s) to operate a pet grooming business may be required, especially if your business will reside within a major metropolitan area, or an incorporated section of even a rural town. Check with your local and state government for all business license and permit requirements well before you open your business.

In an industry without vocational licensing for pet groomers, pet owners and pets may be at risk of the services received from unqualified pet groomers. Unless pet owners inquire, they may never know that their pet groomer never attended a school of pet grooming, apprenticed for an adequate period of time with an experienced professional pet groomer or sought certification as a pet care professional. Indeed, how does the pet owner know if their pet groomer is not an untrained amateur? There are pet grooming business owners who "set up shop almost overnight" without a background of apprenticeship or formal training. Without formal vocational licensing, pet groomer certification programs have become an alternative way to communicate to pet owners that the certified pet groomer has received some level of training and undergone performance testing. Certification can build consumer confidence, but certification is not replacement for vocational licensing as you will learn below.

The evidence of your certification is an entitlement, and sometimes includes additional rights to display the certifying organization's logo in your business and promotional materials. Certification typically involves performance testing focused on the aesthetic value of your finish grooming based on the pet's breed profile as set forth by its individual breed standard. Consumers may gain more confidence knowing that you have been certified by a reputable organization, and certainly it will distinguish you as being far removed from amateur status. The more revered entitlements typically involve the words "master groomer or master stylist', and that status requires extensive experience beyond attending a school of pet grooming or a basic apprenticeship period.

We recommend that you seek certification. However, we note that it is not an absolute requirement nor does it guarantee financial success. There are very successful pet groomers and business owners who are not certified, but you can be sure that they respect the certification process and they have a similar commitment to uphold pet care skills worthy of certification.

Though vocational licensing of pet groomers is not yet a reality, significant progress is being made to make it so. It is not likely that vocational licensing procedures will be conducted similar to certification procedures. Obtaining a vocational license for pet grooming would probably require an examination covering broader material, such as those which effect public, groomer and pet safety. Grooming procedures and skills for safely handling animals would be fundamental, however much room would need to be for artistic interpretation and creativity."

Sources of Certification

You've decided to be certified. Now, where do you go for certification. You should examine all of the programs offered by the following organizations, and measure the appropriateness of their certification to your personal, career and business objectives. All of these are fine and well-known organizations which we are pleased to recommend to you. Becoming certified requires time, money and effort as you will be traveling with your pet(s) to certification sites.

Companion Animal Hygienist (CAH)
Contact World Wide Pet Supplies Association (WWPSA) at 818-447-2222.

National Certified Master Groomer (NCMG)
Contact National Dog Groomers Association of America (NDGAA) at 724-962-2711.

Certified Master Groomer (CMG)
Contact International Professional Groomers (IPG) at 847-758-1938.

ISCC Certified
Contact the International Society of Canine Cosmetologists (ISCC) at 972-414-9715 or visit their website at

Learn More About Vocational Licensing

Vocational licensing has been a hot topic in 1999, and it will probably be the same in 2000. You can learn more about vocational licensing in articles occasionally appearing in pet grooming trade magazines.

Current Status of Licensing

In 2005 there was an attempt by a legislator to vocationally licensed pet groomers in California. The Bill was met with great criticism by groomers for the manner in which it is written, and not necessarily the concept of the profession being licensed. As of early 2006 the California progress went from a pending status to abandonment.

Pet Grooming Magazines

Pet Age (grooming trade section)
H.H. Backer Associates, Inc.

200 S. Michigan, Suite 840
Chicago, Illinois 60604
Fax: 312-663-5676
Go to

Pet Business (grooming section)
McFadden Pet Business

233 Park Avenue South, 6th Floor
New York, New York 10003
Fax: 212-228-3142
Go to

Groomer to Groomer (magazine)
Barkleigh Publications, Inc.

6 State Road, Suite 113
Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania 17050
Fax: 717-691-3381
Go to

Off Lead (magazine)
Barkleigh Publications, Inc.
6 State Road, Suite 113
Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania 17050
Fax: 717-691-3381
Go to

Groomer's Voice (newsletter)

National Dog Groomer's Association of America, Inc.
Post Office Box 101
Clark, Pennsylvania 16113
Fax: 724-962-1919
Go to

The Groomer's Gazette Quarterly
Delores McGifford
P.O. Box 609
Dayton, NV 89404

Northern Groomers (United Kingdom) (magazine)
c/o Canine Cuts
20 Bridge Road
Colinton, Edinburgh EH130LQ
Go to

Pet Ownership Magazines & Newsletters

Cat Fancy Magazine

Subscription Service Department
Post Office Box 53264
Boulder, Colorado 80322-3264
Fax: 303-604-7455

Dog Fancy Magazine

Subscription Service Department
Post Office Box 53264
Boulder, Colorado 80322-3264
Fax: 303-604-7455

Dogs Today Magazine

Pankhurst Farm, Bagshot Road
West End, Near Woking
Surrey GU24 9QR

Dog Gone Newsletter

Dog Gone Newsletter (Pet Travel)
Post Office Box 651155
Vero Beach, Florida 561-569-8434

Dog World Magazine

Dog World
Subscription Services
Post Office Box 56240
Boulder, Colorado 80323
Toll-free: 800-361-8056

Pet Life Magazine

Pet Life
Subscription Services
Garden Level Suite
1227 West Magnolia Avenue
Fort Worth, Texas 76104-9989
Toll-free: 800-856-8060 ext. 128

Are you ready to become a homegroomer?

Many people have a strong desire to operate a business in their home. They enjoy eliminating regular work commutes. Some groomers prefer to be closer to their family especially while raising young children, so a home based business is ideal. Operating a home business is clearly a working lifestyle choice but there MAY a few disadvantages.

First, the home based pet grooming business rarely earns the "net worth" of a commercial salon business. Commercial locations generally have a much higher market value, including the value of a long lease or equity in the real estate when you own the commercial building. Commercial locations generally build a much larger clienteles, an important factor in setting the market value of a business. Net worth is important because one day you will sell your business and the income derived can provide a more comfortable retirement, or a career change if that is your desire. However, a large valuable business is not always the goal of the home based groomer.

There is only a small percentage of buyers with an interest in buying a home-based pet grooming business including the property, but they are out there. So home groomers ask if they can keep their property but sell their clientele. The answer is "Yes" but again the demand is small, but not unheard of at all. When you consider the buyer faces the obstacle of transferring the existing clientele to a new location, and still has to pay for the build out the new location, it becomes obvious why there are few sales of home-based pet grooming businesses unless the property is a part of the sale.

There are additional obstacles. Be sure to check with your local and state regulations to ensure that you can operate a home-based pet grooming business. We know with certainty that there are areas within the U.S. that prohibit home-based pet grooming businesses. As an area becomes more populated with high density housing, the likelihood of increased restrictions on home businesses is almost certain.

Even if a home based grooming business is allowed in your area, how will your neighbors accept the business? They can be a problem and ask the local regulators to stop your operation for reasons generally derived from increased traffic and noise created by your home business.

Make sure you have at least 500 square feet for a small home business, and to keep your neighbors quiet, soundproof the work area. Keep windows closed, so you will need air conditioning. If you have a yard area for dogs, strictly limit their barking.

Consider the extra traffic you are bringing in to your area. Neighbor complaints have been a common reason for some home-based pet grooming business having to close down, or for commercial codes that prevent operating a pet grooming business in the home. Personally we have known of cases where neighbors got together and easily shutdown a home grooming business where noise and traffic problems were substantiated. Some home groomers have worked around traffic related problems by picking up and delivering the pets they groom.

If you are a renter, ensure very clearly that your landlord will cooperate with your intent to operate a home business and the required building improvements. Don't underestimate the demand for water and other utilities.

Home groomers need insurance for their business in addition to regular homeowner coverage. Ensure that you can find the necessary insurance coverage for both the household and the business.

Starting a pet grooming business in the home typically costs less, even much less, than a commercial location. For that reason alone, persons not willing to take out a loan, or seek out an investor, for a mobile van or commercial location often turn to a home business. Many home-based pet grooming business owners are excellent groomers, but they are in a professional business sense sometimes more appropriately characterized as a business hobbyist in comparison to the business owner and manager set out to develop a commercial salon with several employees. If your desire is to work in your home, you will not mind the obstacles or limitations of a home-based pet grooming business.

There is almost nothing in the way of books on managing a home grooming business, however, business management principles are business management principles. You can order some really helpful books on Pet Bookstore. Moreover you can find some more information there.

In some areas regulations for home based businesses may restrict hiring employees. Again, check with your local regulators.

Do your homework for your business! Many home groomers have invested thousands of dollars remodeling a home grooming business only to find out later they have to shutdown, and move the business to a commercial location. Don't go by what friends and family say alone, do your homework. Usually that means talking with Town or City Hall government and the County government. Never forget that the closer you live to neighbors, the more likely your business could disturb them and they have rights that may prevail over your having a home business affecting them with noise and/or traffic.

Why Buy an Existing Grooming Business

cxraYou should obtain the following documents of any business you are thinking about buying.

Client Records: Does the business keep a client list with service histories? It is one of most important assets of the business. Many grooming business owners easily throw around the size of their client base, like "I have 1,000 regular clients." What is "regular?" There are no rules in the pet industry. We tell you that if a pet owner doesn't come in AT LEAST 2 times, and it really should be a minimum of 4 times a year, they really are not that valuable to the purchase. Take a count of each client and how often they have come in during the last year. Those that come in 4 times a year or more are the ones you can count on for future cash flow, and these are the ones that back the asking price of the business. We have seen client bases overstated by up to 500% many, many times. Really.

Bank Accounts: A list of all business accounts.

Asset List: Asset list of all real estate, equipment, tools and supplies including intangible assets like trademarks and licenses.

Real and Personal Property: Documents such as mortgages, deeds, leases, appraisals, loans and insurance policies.

Sales Records: You want the back up sales records that correlate with the financial records and tax returns.

Advertising and Promotions: Obtain copies of past and present advertising, brochures and yellow pages ads.

Inventory Receipts: If you are purchasing inventory, check a list of inventory and examine ALL inventory to ensure it is still worthy of selling based on condition or product dating.

Supplier List: You want a list of all sources the owner uses to obtain supplies, tools, equipment and other vendors.

Employee Records: When you are going to employ existing employees you need their personnel files including any benefits information, payroll records etc.

Licenses and Permits: You need to have all certificates, permits and licenses issued by federal, state or local agencies.

You must evaluate your chances for successfully owning and managing the business you may decide to purchase. That means fully understanding how the business was setup and run until it became available for sale. Can you fulfill the management system running it now? Will the owner provide assistance including consultation assistance for a period of time after the sale is complete? Will the present owner really be able to persuade most of the existing clientele to stay with the business? Oh yes, does your contract of sale ensure that the seller won't open a competing new business in the same trade?

Is the price right? Get at least two certified commercial business appraisers to value the business. Their reports should tell you a great deal if the asking price is reasonable. Ask for the opinion of your accountant and lawyer too, and if you have successful business owners in your family, see what they say too. You are collecting information, and not necessarily confirming that everyone's assessment is correct. But swings in appraised value can be a sign of a problem.

You need to review the financial performance of the business to ensure that you can meet the monthly payments of a business purchased on a loan or note receivable as well as providing income to support your household. This process must be done for each of the new owners looking for income from the business.

Have you considered the costs of opening your own business in the selected area? Our biggest concern for new grooming business owners is that one or more of the owners should be a full-charge, full-time groomer earning a steady wage for completing those services from the business. Please review the next section below for more information.

As you complete the investigation and compile the records you are likely to gain more insight on if the purchase of the business is for you. Unfortunately, it has been our experience that some pet grooming business owners are lax in maintaining well-organized documentation and if that is so, you are at risk. If you cannot investigate at minimum what has been mentioned here, and your lawyer and accountant are likely to require more, you may be at risk of buying a business and inheriting undiscovered problems. It does happen, be very careful.

Non-Groomers Purchasing a Grooming Business

Occasionally someone shares his or her desire to own a grooming business, yet not groom. Their desire is to be an owner/manager. Is it possible? Yes, but there are financial risks.

As a rule of thumb, an owner/groomer "putting down their clippers" to simply own and manage their business needs the net operating of a minimum of 3 full-time full-charge groomers to provide the now non-grooming owner with about the same paycheck previously earned when the owner was also a groomer. Only a large business can support 3 or more full-time groomers, but that is what it will take. If the business has other sources of revenue, such as a kennel operation or strong retail sales, then the dependency factor is lessened. What does this mean to a non-groomer purchasing a grooming business? If you are counting on a good paycheck from the grooming business your purchasing, and it doesn't have 3 or more full-time groomers working for you, you shouldn't count on too much of a paycheck if grooming is the main source of revenue. Yes, there are exceptions but you need to talk this over with a grooming consultant expert at this subject. There are so many variables here that we could fill this website, but the above mentioned caution is very serious.

If you are a non-groomer purchasing a grooming business, we favor the situation where two partners purchase the business, usually a husband/wife but not a requirement, where one grooms full-time and one manages full-time. That means the grooming partner is steadily earning a regular paycheck from grooming each working day.

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Business Owners Reccomendations.

Based on the results of recent surveys we know that 90% of career seekers want to one day open your own pet grooming business. 48% of you expect to employed when first entering the grooming industry, but it's only a step to one day being a business owner. However, nearly all of the 90% destined to open a grooming business say they have no previous experience as a business owner of any kind. Now that's a big career step indeed!

Becoming a business owner is perhaps one of the most important events in your life. It requires knowledge and advance planning, and even changing the way you think in the workplace. You are not employed anymore working under the directions and supervision of management, so you are the supervisor of every aspect of your business, indeed, you are the OWNER, MANAGER, SUPERVISOR, GROOMER, BOOKKEEPER, CUSTOMER SERVICE and probably more job descriptions.

Doesn't a business owner require more skills than grooming alone?

What 2 hats are you really wearing? Groomer and Manager.

Where is your MANAGEMENT training specific to grooming?

Did you know there is only one book ever written in the history of the grooming industry dedicated to MANAGEMENT? One. It's advertised here a lot for a reasons, but for one good reason. You need it! If you are a business owner, you have more responsibilities than just being a groomer. Too many thousands of grooming business owners have little or no management training; that's a fact. They are wonderful groomers because they love it, but they love it more than management, but management is what keeps a business alive and healthy, less stressful and financially successful. The source of groomer burnout is not grooming, but a lack of business education and accepting business problems as normal.

From Problems to Profits - The Madson Management System for Pet Grooming Businesses is perhaps our foremost recommendation to first time business owners as well as veteran groomers. It is an incredible business plan and management guide, and it can save you thousands of dollars avoiding years of trial and error in getting a stable and profitable grooming business established.

You need more knowledge to become a business owner. Here are some answers to frequent questions.

  • At present pet grooming businesses and pet groomers are not formally licensed as a vocation, as are doctors, lawyers etc. However that may change in the future. You are responsible to maintain your awareness of vocational licensing requirements.

  • Because the profession of grooming is not vocationally licensed does not mean you do not have to apply for other permits and licenses. If you are going to open a home, mobile, commercial salon or shop, or your own business leasing space from another business, you most likely have to apply for some licenses and permits. Most likely they will fall into these categories, 1) local government, 2) state government and 3) federal government. Here are the most common licenses and permits, but this list does not represent a complete list and you are responsible to discover all permits and licenses you require by contacting local, state and federal business owner and employer agencies.

  • Local government will almost certainly require that you inform them of your new business by applying for licenses and permits. You usually do this at your "City Hall" and/or "County Clerk." Ask for assistance in opening a new business, and they will inform you of local government licensing and permit requirements. You may need a permit to operate or license in your city, and sometimes county, even if you have a mobile grooming business. You are most likely to need one when you open a business in "incorporated" areas of your town or city. You are most likely also required to file a "fictitious name statement" or "dba - doing business as" application, and have to publish it in locally approved media. What this means is that the public has the right to know who owns the "ABC Pet Grooming Business" as a matter of public record. Be sure to ask your local government how to file, and know that almost certainly any bank where you desire to open a business type account is going to ask for proof that you filed your fictitious name statement with local government. Finally, you may become amazed that your local government may or may not allow a pet grooming business where you want it. In California urban areas it is difficult, if not impossible, to legally open a grooming business in the home, and sometimes they do not allow a commercial vehicle (like a mobile grooming van) to be parked in front of the owner's home as it is a visual nuisance distracting neighbors. The moral of the story? Go to your local government offices and be honest in describing the business you want to open, and ask them for a list of all legal requirements to open such a business. Don't disobey or ignore any requirement as you don't want someone to take recourse against your business down the road. As a new business owner you should introduce yourself to a local attorney and explain your dream of opening a local business, and in that way you have someone ready to help. Don't be embarrassed, they started new at one time and know what it is to open a new business - in fact you should be proud - and they know you need working relationships with professionals just like they do with other professionals. Remember, you are no longer and employee, but an owner and possibly employer and they both use professional help occasionally.

  • State government does get involved with your business. If you are going to sell retail pet products, even a few, you are going to collect sales tax and transfer it state and/or local government. It is critical that you get a resale permit. From experience we can tell you that you must be very accurate to the penny in collecting and transferring sales tax monies, and keep detailed sales records for retail items separate of sales of services like grooming. Oh yes, there are some areas where you do collect tax on services. Again it is your responsibility to go your state government offices and inform them that you intend to open a business in their state, and you require a list of requirements to do so. Yes, there are states that require a state license to operate in addition to local business licenses. Be sure to inform them that your business is grooming pets and some retail sales if applicable so that they provide you with the most accurate requirements. You may be responsible for additional state taxes on businesses, business owners and your employees. Be sure to talk to your state level taxation agencies to under what records, policies and procedures, and filings you must follow and complete. Again, working professionals such as your bookkeeper, Certified Public Accountant and lawyer will be invaluable. Some states, even local governments, are now requiring pet groomers to get special permits, sometimes issued by the U.S.D.A., and permits to use and store chemicals like flea dip pesticides, etc. Ask! State, local and federal government all hold you responsible to get their information for the business and type of business you intend to open, and so do we.

  • Federal government requirements may exist specific to a pet grooming business. If you are a sole-proprietor grooming business you are responsible to file estimated tax payments for income you draw from your business, and you will have to start filing the long form 1040, and additional forms like a Schedule C (profit/loss from your business) and Schedule SE the "Social Security" payments you must make on your personal income drawn from the business. Your Social Security number will be used on many of these documents, but even if you have only one employee you must get an EIN number (Employer ID Number) as you will be required to withhold payroll taxes. The IRS has employer handbooks. If you incorporate your business, or form one of the newer "LLC" type organizations, there are even more rules and regulations. Okay, are you frightened now? Don't be! We always groomed a few extra pets every month figuring that the money we earned from them would pay for our bookkeeper, Certified Public Accountant and sometimes a lawyer to keep our business operating to the letter of the law. By doing this we "slept well at night." You should to, and don't worry. Often you can earn more money grooming pets than trying to do all of this extraneous business work by yourself. It's worth it indeed. Your business is like a baby and you take your baby to a doctor right? Okay, business professionals help you to do tax forms, paychecks and much more in the same way. It's always the people that don't get professional help that get into trouble someday. Also, the bookkeeping system in this extensive book will help you to keep records suitable for your bookkeeper and CPA. In fact many readers report that they get charged less because the book's system organizes the information they need so well they can complete their work far more quickly!

  • You are going to need insurance for your business.

Buying pet grooming business.

If you don't want to start a grooming business from scratch, buying an existing one may be your alternative. First of all, there are the plusses and minuses.

The plusses are:

Existing Customers: Customers and loyal clients have already been developed. Ensuring that they are likely to stay with your new ownership means you will have demand for services from the start, and that means cash flow from sales of services. Businesses started from scratch have much less initial cash flow.

Immediate Operation: You can start immediately.

Existing Goodwill: Presumably the present owner has created goodwill towards the businesses grooming and other pet care services.

Financial Planning: Financing may be easier to obtain because the business has a track record.

Eliminate Competition: Buying a business may eliminate a competitor had you started your own business.

The minuses are:

Problems: There may be unapparent problems in the business that you do not discover till after the sale of the business.

Cost: Sometimes buying an existing business costs more than starting one from scratch.

Obsolete Equipment: Grooming equipment, tools and leasehold improvements may be obsolete or in need of substantial repair.

Personality Conflicts: If some of the existing employees are staying in your employment, there may be personality clashes. Specifically, owners new to the grooming industry keeping very experienced employees may be pushed to pay higher commission wages or salaries or other scenarios taking advantage of the new owner. It really helps when the new owner(s) know how to groom and are not dependent on having no choice but to maintain the present full-charge staff.

Receivables: If the seller is owned receivables from clientele, you may find they are worthless or hard to collect.

When buying a business you should exercise caution throughout the entire process from researching it to finally signing a contract of sale. You are strongly urged to have the assistance of a lawyer and accountant throughout the process. Not having both has often been the cause of problems when buying an existing business. Unscrupulous sellers can take advantage of buyers, the courts have seen many such cases. Never buy a business without a contract of sale reviewed by your attorney, never. Don't sign documents relating to the sale without your attorney's prior review.

You start by locating a business to buy, researching it exhaustively and making the decision to buy or not.

Locating a Business to Buy: I reccomend you Classified Ads list of grooming businesses for sale. Major pet grooming industry trade magazines also have business for sale classifieds. Your local newspapers, especially major metropolitan newspapers occasionally have grooming business for sale ads. There are major Internet based classified ads web sites you can research from most of the major search engines like Excite, Lycos, and Yahoo. Ask your local commercial real estate broker if they access to regional business for sale listings.

Researching the Business: After you locate a business that interests you, start researching it. Now is the deadline to have an attorney and accountant representing you and your interests. The more you research the business the more likely you will make the right decision to buy, or not buy, an existing business. You should be very confident in your purchase.

The seller may ask you to sign a letter of intent to purchase the business, a non-binding offer for the business, before exposing any sensitive information about the business. You may also be asked to sign a confidentiality agreement promising that you won't use the information released for any purpose other than to make the decision to buy.

If a business is for sale, there is a reason. Determine the reason very clearly. Is the business having financial problems? Is the economy of its market area and demand for pet care services eroding? Is it simply poor management? Is the owner simply retiring? A thorough investigation is absolutely warranted. Any problems uncovered must be weighed in making your decision to buy.

A business investigation involves taking a hard, OBJECTIVE look at every aspect of the business. Sometimes the investigation continues even if you have made an offer to purchase, and an escrow has been opened. Your attorney can request that should certain problems be discovered during the escrow you can request adjustments, reimbursements or other solutions to uncovered problems. Here is where you are very much aided by an attorney.

Dog training

I strongly urge you to have a certified commercial appraiser perform a written appraisal of the business. The owner may have had one done, but you should two. They are excellent tools to use in price negotiations.

Your investigation should include reviewing the business' documentation, including:

Contracts and Leases: Property and machinery leases, sales contracts and purchases contracts. What are the obligations you are assuming?

Organization: How is the business organized? Is it a partnership, corporation or ? How is it capitalized? Who are the owners, all of them? How is their ownership documented and do you have copies?

Financials: Examine the last three years of financial statements, or further back, to determine the financial condition of the business. Your accountant can be very helpful in this investigation.

Tax Returns: Examine the last three years of business tax returns, or further back, to determine if the business has been profitable and whether there are outstanding tax liabilities. Again, your accountant and lawyer will be very helpful in this part of the investigation.

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Is it worth to start pet grooming business?

So now after reading all articles on this blog some of you perhaps start  thinking of your own pet grooming business.

Is it worth to start?

Demand for pet groomers will increase 12% by 2010. The U.S. pet industry is a $32 billion a year business noted for being recession resistant. It has steadily grown from $16 billion in 1992.

Recent research into Yellow Pages advertising by groomers and U.S. pet population studies indicates there were nearly 28,000 pet grooming businesses or other pet businesses offering ancillary grooming services in the U.S. in 2003.

Yet thousands of professional groomer jobs are vacant year round, perhaps because there are over 4,000 dogs and cats for every U.S. grooming business.  So career opportunities are nearly limitless.

You can find some more useful information on

During next month we will talk about many important issues which are connected with building a pet grooming business. See you! 



The Heritage of Pet Grooming

Over 400 years ago pet owners were taking care of their pets.

Many reference materials attest to man's fondness of pets, but no books trace the origins of pet grooming.

However, there are occasional references that shed light on the art of pet grooming. Ferdinand Mery, authored The Dog (London, 1970). In it, he established that dogs were first perceived as useful to man as early as 4240 B.C. Mery mentions unusual religious totems with dogs depicted in their sculpture. As centuries passed the dog eventually became commonly accepted as a pet, and is now considered "man's best friend."

In past centuries, pets have lived comfortably in the castles of Kings and Queens. They have served as working dogs in the marketplace and traveled with entertainment groups. Art from the fourteenth through eighteenth century depicts small dogs and cats near the footstools of ladies of the Court. In other paintings small pets sit with their masters on lounges and chairs. Another shows a young man standing next to his spaniel. Frequently, the images depict larger breeds sitting on the floor next to their masters.

The Elizabethan era reveals some the earliest historical evidence of pet grooming activity. While the method of grooming is unclear, the pets are clean and well-groomed. Perhaps groomers in the marketplace cleaned them. One such grooming lithograph shows a dog being sheared while sitting on a lady's lap. Women shearing dogs is also the subject of etchings.

In 17th century France, the poodle was the official dog at court. The era of King Louis XV of France reveals the first official records of dog grooming parlors. Rare books of the 19th century mention dog grooming in Europe. The Book of the Dog (Vero Shaw, 1879) refers to the existence of dog grooming in England. Specific grooming recommendations such as washing, grooming, and coat conditioning occur in Ashmont's Kennel Secrets, (Boston, 1893). Pet groomers have a historical record of which they can be proud.

Over the years, attitudes have been changing toward many animals. Animals that provided carriage for thousands of years, such as horses, mules, and camels, are now replaced by advanced developments in transportation. Many of these animals have different uses presently and maintain a special relationship with man. However, none are move beloved as pets than dogs and cats. And what man loves, he care for and protects.

Nobody can deny that unless you know the history of your profession and the revolutions taking place in your field, you are unlikely to succeed. Too many of today's pet grooming salons are as outmoded as a horse replaced by an automobile.

You can find more information on this topic on